What are the different types of solar water heaters?

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Non-pressurized Solar Water Heaters.

The pressureless system is the simplest water heating system. In it, vacuum tubes are inserted directly into the water tank and are installed together on a single frame. This system uses vacuum tubes without a heat-conducting rod. The number of tubes is standard and depends on the capacity of the tank.

The design of the vacuum tube is similar to the design of a thermos glass flask. Three-layer vacuum tubes have a high absorption rate and high-temperature resistance; they connect with a water tank located above them. When the water in the tubes is heated, its density decreases and the water rises up – into the tank, and cold water from the tank flows down – into the vacuum tube. This ensures the circulation of water and heat exchange of the entire system.

Pressurized Solar Water Heaters

Solar collector pressurized system. The solar system got its name “pressurized” because the solar collector tank and the entire system is under pressure from the water supply network, which is connected directly to the water tank of this solar water heater.

Flat solar collectors.

A flat solar collector has a very simple design: it’s just a metal box with glass on top. Mineral wool is commonly used for thermal insulation of the body’s bottom and walls. This option is far from ideal, since the transfer of heat from the adsorber to the glass through the air inside the box is not ruled out. With a large temperature difference inside the collector and outside, heat loss can be quite significant. As a result, a flat solar collector that performs admirably in the spring and summer becomes inefficient in the winter.

Areas of application of solar collectors.

Solar collectors, like any other heat generator, are primarily used to heat structures and prepare water for a hot water supply system. It remains to find out which type of solar collector is best suited to perform a particular function.

Flat plate solar collectors, as we found out, have good performance in spring and summer, but are ineffective in winter. It follows from this that it is not advisable to use them for heating. The need for which appears precisely with the onset of cold weather. This, however, does not mean that there is no case at all for this equipment.

Flat-plate collectors have one indisputable advantage – they are significantly cheaper than vacuum models, so in cases where you plan to use solar energy exclusively in summer, it makes sense to purchase them. Flat solar collectors perfectly cope with the task of preparing water for hot water supply in the summer. Even more often they are used to heat the water to a comfortable temperature in outdoor pools.

Vacuum manifolds with tubing are more versatile. When it comes to winter colds, their performance does not suffer as much as flat models, allowing them to be utilized all year. As a result, solar collectors can be used not only for hot water but also as part of a heating system.

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