A natural disaster, Earthquake, is a result of seismic waves passing through the ground. When these waves pass from the ground, can adversely affect the infrastructure of buildings and even the cities. These powerful waves cause the failure of soil, structural destruction, and in severe cases the loss of lives. The duration, intensity, and frequency of earthquakes influence the movement of ground to some extreme level.
In history, many such intense accidents have been seen that have almost destroyed the whole city infrastructure. Although, these are natural disasters and one cannot reduce them however we can make the infrastructure strong enough that can bear the intensity of these waves up to a certain level. All the personnel involved in the construction industry, be it construction managers or used heavy equipment dealers, should be aware of the design of earthquake-proof infrastructure
By following some tips, latest technologies, and trends, the building can be designed earthquake-proof while the infrastructure would be safe and protected.
Vibration Control System
Installation of the vibration control system in a building can make it able to absorb the vibration of earthquake waves. For this purpose, a damper is used to neutralize the external vibratory pressure. The waves move horizontally under the ground which will demolish the base of the building. A damper will help the building to minimize the effect of waves.
Dampers are piston heads filled with silicon oil. This piston can be placed on each level of the building in a way that one end could be attached to the beam and the other to the column. The piston will act against the oil in case of horizontal waves of an earthquake. The piston will then convert the mechanical energy to heat.
The massive vibration during an earthquake hit can displace the base of a building which can cause demolition. By using the pendulum damper, you can protect the infrastructure. The pendulum damper can successfully be installed in high-rise buildings with the help of steel cables and can be operated with a hydraulic system. In this technology, a heavy pendulum is installed to reverse the wave intensity. The pendulum effect helps the building to bear the wave for a little long time.
Another way to protect the building from earthquake waves is making a flexible base building. A building is constructed a little above the ground. Flexible pads, made of steel, lead, and rubber is installed first at the base of the building. These vibratory and flexible pads are able to absorb the high-frequency waves and prevent them to touch the building. This way, the building remains firm for a long time.
Installing Rings around Building
Some places on earth are very prone to earthquakes and face seismic waves very frequently. To make a building earthquake-resistant in these places, a lot of different options have to be considered. In this method, a building is surrounded by some concrete or plastic rings to distribute the vibratory waves without touching the building. These 100 rings are installed about three feet down the building base.
When the waves touch the rings, they are forced to flow towards the outer layers of rings, hence the waves automatically travel away from the building and dissolute between the 100 rings.
Earthquake-Resistant Building Material
Besides installing different technologies around the building to make it earthquake-resistant, it is also suggested to use materials that can prevent the building from falling during the earthquake hit. The building materials are equally responsible to protect them from falling, so they have to be chosen accordingly.
Wood and Steel
Building material has to be ductile enough to build vibration and stress-free structures so that it can bear the intense seismic waves. Nowadays, experts are preferring steel materials for building. Whereas, wood is another flexible material that is used in modern buildings. This material helps to distribute the waves preventing the building to fall.
Use Of Advanced Building Materials
Experts along with scientists are trying their best to innovate the building materials to build a stress-resistant building structure. Shape memory alloys have the ability to reverse back to their original shape and can tolerate high stress too. Polymers-based fiber-reinforced wraps are another innovative product that can provide strength up to 38% with great flexibility to the building.
On the other hand, natural materials are also fascinating to experts. Some natural materials such as Bamboo, 3D printed material, and spider silk-based fibers have high flexibility and are lightweight. These materials also provide the interlocking structure to the building to resist the high intensity of seismic waves.
Scientists and experts are researching to find the best solution for the building to make it earthquake-resistant. They have developed a lot of innovative solutions and are continuously finding and creating the material for building construction. However, an earthquake is a natural disaster and despite all these explanations, scientists are still unable to make the building fully earthquake-proof. By following these simple precautions, we can minimize the risk of damage due to waves hit but it is still impossible to make the building strong enough to stand against the high-intensity waves.
Demolition of buildings and infrastructure, due to the earthquake is the real problem of the construction industry. Every individual, be it a construction manager, used heavy equipment dealer, or even the common public has to face the loss from the damage made by the intense seismic wave. Every year, a very large number of incidents are reported causing the loss of capital, city infrastructure, and human lives as well. The situation becomes more dangerous when the intensity of these waves is unpredictable. In some countries, earthquakes are seen very frequently, so they have to design their buildings accordingly.
By taking some precautions, we can reduce the damage risks. Installing some safety technologies around the building can make it strong enough to stand firm against the waves for a little longer. Besides the technologies installed around the building, the use of sustainable, innovative, and natural construction materials can also make the building firm and stronger. Along with them, an evacuating space in a building can help people to exit during incidents.