Rose cultivation is one of the leading flower cultivation in global floriculture. People use it in almost every event. You can see it in several varieties in shape and size and different colours. Roses are the Indian native, but some types are native to America, Africa and Europe. Moreover, it is a medicinal flower used to treat acne, stress and depression. Apart from this, the primary producers of roses are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh in India. Nowadays, farmers grow roses in greenhouse setups to increase production.
Methods & Requirements of Rose Cultivation
Here we are with some requirements and methods of rose cultivation. So scroll a bit to know in detail.
The temperature between 18 to 30°C is suitable for rose cultivation. And you should sow the seeds at a temperature of 25 to 30°C. Moreover, the 200 to 300 mm rainfall is ideal for rose cultivation. It can present maximum growth in mentioned criteria. In the end, you have to harvest the crop at a temperature between 20 to 28°C.
For rose farming, you can grow it in well-drained sandy loam soil with rich organic matter. The pH level must be 6 to 7.5 for good growth. The rose plant is sensitive to waterlogging, so remove excess water and give a proper drainage system. You should use a quality tractor like John Deere 5050d and others to complete this work.
Mainly roses have three main groups: species, old garden and Modern rose. So let’s know about them one by one.
1. Species Roses
This variety is also known as a wild rose have five petals with bright colours. Let’s see some examples.
- Rosa rugose – It is native to Japan and hardy in nature.
- Banksiae – known as lady bank and is native to China, Flowers are small, violet colour
- Eglanteria – Scented flower with single petals
- Multiflora – Native of Asia, white colour petals
2. Old Garden Rose
This group of roses is more attractive and scented. In addition, it can grow in a warm climate. This group can easily grow, is disease-free, and sustain well in winter. Some of the rose plants in this group grow in shrubs. The rest of the roses grow like vines. This group has several colourful flowers, but white and pastel are the most popular. China roses, Damask roses, Tea roses, Moss Rosses, Bourbon Roses, etc., come in this group. Let’s know about them.
- Alba – Flowers are light pink to white in colour
- Bourbon – Light pink to deep pinkish-red flowers
- Boursault – Flowers are purplish-red colour
- Centifolia – known as cabbage rose, white to pink colour
- Damask – Found in deep pink to white shades
- Hybrid Perpetual – Flowers are pink to red
- Macrantha – Light pink to white colour blossom
- Moss – Flowers come in a variety of colour
- Noisette – Flowers are in pink shades
3. Modern Roses
This group is most popular and grows from hybrid tea and primrose cross-breeding. Let’s know about them.
- Hybrid tea – Plant grows up to 3 to 5 feet, Paradise, Peace, Polarstern, Pristine etc.
- Floribunda – Having small flowers and even short stems, Florence, Jaguar, Frisco, kiss, Impatient, Angel Face, Ivory Fashion
- Shrub Rose – Belong to a class of wild species, requiring little maintenance, Bonica, Abraham Darby, Golden Wings etc.
- Climbing rose – Having long branches, required little pruning, can grow on the wall and fences, Blaze, Dortmund, Don Juan, Climbing Iceberg, Rambler roses, Everblooming climbers, Miniature Roses – Grows up to 2 feet height, flowers are small & attractive, Rainbows End, Rise N Shine, Red Beauty
- Grandifloras – Grows up to the height of 2-3 feet, flowers are medium to large, Aquarius, Pink Parfait, Gold Medal
- Standard or Tree Rose – Grow up to 2 to 3 feet in height. Flowers are full size.
- Flower Carpet – Known as Groundcover roses, pest resistant, sustain in hard winter, Scarlet, Amber, Pink Supreme
Apart from these groups, Let’s know some other varieties, which are:
4. Some Other Varieties of Roses
- Commercial Varieties – Pusa Gaurav (Pink varieties), Montezuma, Pusa Priya, First Red (red varieties), Super Star
- Exhibition Varieties – First Prize, Pusa Sonia, Red- Christian Dior, Super Star, Eiffel Tower, Montezuma
- Scented Varieties – Crimson Glory, Sugandha, La France
- Other Varieties – Vivaldi, Sika, Summer Fragerance, Gen Vaidya, Arusumo, Proudland, Kalpana, Mother and Baby, American Home, Melina, Soller, Night N Day, Jogan, Amacia, Montreal, Pilgrim, MME Teresa Estabing, Grandmaster Piece, Golden Jubilee, Papa Pirosa, Elegant Beauty, Pampa, Chimson Tide, Belami, Madelon, Perfect Moment, Polarstern, Fulton Mackay, Rocklea, Hebe Kuborgo, Sweet Surrender, summer dream, Dreaming, Pastel Delight, Lapdef, Madosh, Godavari, Rosenrot, Roundalay, City kenda, Fragerance Lady, Execiting, Jessie Mathews, Portland Thail Blazer, Mirandi, Lucy Cromphorn, Banco, Dame Décor, Jean Gaujard, Krithika, Leg glow, Emily Post, Austin Reed, Tynwald, Alaska Centennial, Bacardy, Dolly Parton, MME Denise Galloise, Touch of Glass, Jayalalitha, Chaitra, Royal Amathyst, Ashwini, Command Performance, Chalis Gold, MME President, Agena, Alinka, Ariane, Bella Epoque, Alliance, Alpha, Bellease, Besancon, Bridal Bush, Bridal Dream, Blessings, Blue Monday, Brinessa, Cabaret, Cacico
You have to give ploughing and hoeing operations to bring the soil to a suitable tilth for rose farming. You should prepare the beds before 4 to 6 weeks of planting. After that, you apply the 2 tons of well-decomposed manure and 2 Kg of superphosphate. Moreover, you have to do levelling operation to form uniform beds. You should use a high-quality tractor like Swaraj 735 and others to plough the land. It can save you from extra expenses.
Mid-October is the optimum time for rose cultivation in the Northern states. The plant to plant distance must be around 75 cm, and the sowing depth must be 2 to 3 cm. Direct sowing of seedlings, By cutting method and Budding method are the methods of sowing.
You have to establish and well settle plants in the field. The frequency of irrigation depends upon the climate and land type. Apart from this, you should use modern technology of irrigations like drip irrigation. It can be the best option for your farm. And you should avoid sprinkler irrigation as it can harm the crop.
In the plant protection section, you have to treat the field with chemicals to protect the crop from several pests and diseases.
Pest and their control:
- Caterpillar – Spray of Methomyl along with sticker 1ml/Ltr
- Thrips, aphids and Leafhopper – Spray of Carbofuran 3G 5gm/plant or Methyl Demeton 25EC 2ml/Ltr of water
Disease and their control:
- Leaf Spot – Spray of Mancozeb or Copper Oxychloride 2.5gm/Ltr of water
- Powdery Mildew – Spray of Flusilazole 40ml + Teepol 50ml/100Ltr of water
- Dieback – Spray of Chlorothalonil 2gm+Teepol 0.5ml/Ltr of water
You can obtain the economic yield of roses from the second year onwards. The sharp hand pruners are suitable for harvesting. You should harvest the field early in the morning or late in the evening.
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