Pomegranate farming is cultivated as a fruit. The amount of juice is found in its fruits, due to which it is used more for making juice. Pomegranate is a beneficial fruit in which the highest amount of carbohydrates, fibre, protein and vitamins is found. Consumption of pomegranate is very helpful for the human body, and it increases the amount of blood in the human body more rapidly. Using its fresh fruits, the long disease of constipation can also be cured, due to which the demand for pomegranate is high in the markets. Various types of diseases can be avoided by consuming pomegranates. Its seeds and skins are also used to manufacture Ayurvedic medicines.
Eating pomegranate in old age reduces the chances of Alzheimer’s disease. But, first, the leaves coming out of its plants are cut. A fully grown pomegranate plant yields 15 to 20 years, so farmers can earn more profit by cultivating pomegranate. In India, pomegranate is cultivated on a commercial scale in states like Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka and Gujarat.
Climate, Soil And Temperature
Light land with sufficient drainage is needed for the cultivation of pomegranate. Besides, sandy loam soil is also suitable for pomegranate cultivation. The pH value of land should be between 6.5 to 7.5. The Pomegranate plant is of sub-tropical climate. Moreover, Pomegranate cultivation gives a high yield in dry climates. On the other hand, its plants grow well in high heat, and its cultivation should not be done in an environment with more winter and moisture. In a moist climate, its plants get affected by many diseases.
A slightly higher temperature is needed in its cultivation. Its plants are easy to grow in high temperatures but need average temperature when transplanting. Plants then need higher temperatures to grow and produce fruit. At high temperatures, more sweetness increases in its fruits, and the colour is also attractive.
Field Preparation and Fertilizer
The pomegranate tree, once matured, gives fruits for many years. Therefore, the land is prepared well before its production. For this, the first deep ploughing of the land is done with a powerful AC tractor. Due to this, the remains of the previous crop in the soil are wholly destroyed. After this, the soil is left open like this for some time, due to which the area gets good sunlight, and the harmful elements present in the field’s soil are destroyed. Finally, after the sun has set in the field, two to three slant ploughing is done through the cultivator.
After ploughing, the field is pulverised by applying water. Later, when the soil starts appearing dry, the area is ploughed using a rotavator. Due to this, the surface of the field becomes friable. After this, the field is levelled by applying a pat. After the land becomes level, the pits are prepared in rows keeping a distance of 4 to 5 metres. A distance of three to four metres is maintained between the pits prepared.
The Pomegranate plant is of sub-tropical climate. Moreover, Pomegranate cultivation gives a high yield in dry climates. On the other hand, its plants grow well in high heat, and its cultivation should not be done in an environment. These pits are prepared in the month of May, and each pit is designed to be two feet wide and two feet deep.
After preparing the pits, 10 to 15 kg of organic manure and NPK are used as chemical fertilizer. The proper amount of 250 GM is mixed well in the soil and filled in the pits. After this, light irrigation is provided to all the pits. Due to irrigation, the soil becomes hard sitting correctly in the pits. Thus, higher yields are achieved by using chemical fertilizers. These pits are built one month before transplanting.
Pomegranate plants are transplanted in the form of seedlings. For this, the seeds are prepared in the nursery. It is considered ideal for preparing its plants by the grafting method, the plant prepared by cutting starts giving yield in three years. Its cuttings can be prepared by many techniques.
Planting Season And Method
The rainy season is considered ideal for transplanting plants. Due to this, the plant develops well. Pomegranate plants need adequate nutrition and a proper climate in the beginning. Due to this, the growth of the plant is also good. In properly watered places, transplanting of its plants can be done even before the rainy season.
Before sowing pomegranate plants in the soil, they are treated with chlorpyrifos powder. After this, a small pit is prepared in the prepared pits before planting the plants. After this, by sowing plants in these holes, cover them well with soil on all sides.
Pomegranate plants require more irrigation. If its plants have been planted in the rainy season, its first irrigation must be done at an interval of 1 week. Apart from this, they need immediate irrigation if their plants have been planted before the rainy season. After the rainy season, water the plants at an interval of 10 to 15 days.
When its plants start flowering, during that time, they have to be irrigated for one to one and a half months. The drip method is considered most suitable for the irrigation of its plants. Plants get the proper amount of water by drip irrigation. Due to this, the plant grows properly.
Both chemical & natural techniques can be used to control weeds in pomegranate plants. However, the first weeding has to be done one month post transplanting. After that, its plants need four to five hoeing in a year. Due to this, a good amount of yield is obtained in the plants.
Pomegranate plant diseases and prevention
This type of disease attacks pomegranate fruits. This disease is caused by Cercospora sp. on pomegranate fruits. Invades in the form of a fungus called Small black spots appear on the fruits of pomegranate affected by this disease. As the outbreak of the disease increases, the size of the spots also increases. To prevent this disease, a suitable amount of Hexaconazole, Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil is sprayed on pomegranate plants.
The disease of this variety affects the yield more, up to 30% less yield is obtained from the crop affected by this disease. This insect disease harms the fruits by leaving their larvae on them. Due to this disease, the fruit is completely destroyed in a short time.
This type of disease attacks the plants and damages them. This insect disease attacks the delicate parts of plants and sucks their juice. With this the plant stops growing. To protect pomegranate plants from this disease, an appropriate amount of Profenophos or Dimethoate is sprayed. Apart from this, if the outbreak of the disease increases more, then an appropriate amount of imidacloprid should be sprayed on the plants.
Popular varieties of pomegranate start giving yield after 120 to 130 days. When the colour of its fruits becomes yellowish red from the upper part, its fruits are obtained during that time.
A pomegranate tree gives a yield of about 15 to 20 KG. Therefore, more than 600 trees can be planted in one hectare of field. A one-hectare field of pomegranate yields 90 to 120 quintals so that farmers can easily earn 5 to 6 lakhs from a one-time crop of pomegranate.
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