Monkeypox Virus: Pattern of human-to-human transmissibility

Monkeypox Virus: Pattern of human-to-human transmissibility

What is the Monkeypox (Poxvirus) virus

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with the monkeypox virus (MPV). The condition is characterized by severe skin disease and high morbidity and mortality. The natural reservoir for the virus is the monkey and possibly other mammals, but humans are the only known host.

There are three kinds of viruses from the family called Paramyxoviridae. They are Parainfluenza viruses, mumps viruses, and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV). There is a fourth virus, which is harder to categorize – it’s called the monkeypox virus. It’s not one of the above-mentioned three, so it has its own species – it’s called the monkeypox virus species.

Monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus family, is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus of the Phycodnaviridae family that causes a disease in monkeys and other primates.

The emergence of monkeypox caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV) has been associated with a high incidence of human disease and deaths in central Africa. Although usually mild, it is a severe disease in young children and infants. In addition, it can complicate pregnancy resulting in abortion, pre-term birth and stillbirths due to fetomaternal transmission (transmission from mother to fetus).

The virus was first isolated from monkeys in 1958, and it was recognized as an important human pathogen in 1970. The majority of cases occur in Africa, but monkeypox has been reported worldwide.


Monkeypox virus is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. It causes monkeypox, a rare viral disease in humans.

The virus is found primarily in central and western Africa, where it has been known to occur for centuries. However, it was not recognized as distinct from smallpox until 1970 when cases were reported in humans and animals following importation into Europe and North America (1).

Monkeypox virus belongs to group A human pathogens. Group A includes the variola viruses (smallpox), vaccinia viruses (vaccinia), cowpox viruses, ectromelia viruses, camelpox viruses, and horsebox viruses.


The pathology of monkeypox is similar to that of smallpox, with additional symptoms including headache and fever along with rashes. There is no cure for Monkeypox except supportive care and pain relievers for symptoms such as headaches and fever.

One of the most common symptoms is a pox-like rash. The monkeypox virus can also cause muscle aches, fever, and headaches. You may also have a sore throat, cough or runny nose.


Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease, meaning that it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The virus is most often transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their body fluids.

Human-to-human transmission has only been documented in a handful of cases, and these have occurred only when there was close contact between the patients.

Symptoms can appear anywhere from 7 to 12 days after exposure to the virus, although they usually appear within 10 days following exposure.

The disease is spread by direct contact with infected animals or with objects contaminated by their saliva (such as clothing or bedding).

Monkeypox is a viral infection that can be fatal. Although most people who are infected don’t get sick, there are some symptoms that can occur. Here are the top signs and symptoms of monkeypox.


Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease—a disease that is transmitted from animals to humans. Monkeypox has been found in Africa and Asia, where it is endemic. The virus spreads through contact with infected animals or their excretions.

More than 1000 cases of monkeypox have been reported in Africa and the Americas since 2001. The first signs of human infection with this virus were detected in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1960 when people living near a forest that had been used as a smuggling route became ill and died. Since then, there have been no documented cases of human-to-human transmission until this study.


Immunity to monkeypox is based on the same vaccine that is used for smallpox, which was developed in the 1950s.

The vaccine works by introducing a weakened form of the smallpox virus into your body so that when you are exposed to the real thing in the future, your immune system will recognize it and fight it off more quickly than without vaccination.

The monkeypox virus was feared to spread throughout the Caribbean region. However, the vaccine against this virus was only available in a few countries and thus the rest of the world needed to think tactically.

The World Health Organization (WHO) had to put in place a program that would enable people from all over the world to be immune for this virus at once. They did not have time to produce millions of vaccines, so they instead developed a “cheap and quick” strategy.

Treatment and prognosis

Primate pox is mainly caused by the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus is a distinct species of the genus ” Orthopoxvirus”, part of the family ” Poxviridae” and regarded as one of the most dangerous pathogens of small mammals such as immunocompromised human beings, rodents, and monkeys (1,2). The only reservoir hosts for this virus are several African rodents living in forest regions that are endemic for Marburg animal disease (3).

In this article, we review the clinical manifestations of monkeypox infections, treatment, and prognosis.

Monkeypox virus infection results in a skin rash that resembles a chicken pox lesion. It can cause blisters on the mouth, eyes, and genitals which take about seven days to develop from macules (flat spots) to papules (small raised bumps) to vesicles (small blisters filled with clear fluid).

  • Treatment is primarily supportive, and no specific antiviral drugs are available to treat monkeypox.
  • The prognosis depends on the severity of the illness. Severe cases may be life-threatening, but fatalities are uncommon in humans.

Signs and symptoms of monkeypox

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that can be transferred to humans. It is a highly contagious condition and health experts recommend patients monitor their condition by keeping an eye on the symptoms.

Symptoms vary depending on the severity of the condition and include, rashes, fever, backache, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes or conjunctivitis. These symptoms last for 1-2 weeks before disappearing with no resulting damage.

A person with monkeypox usually gets a fever, headache, and muscle aches about seven to 10 days after being exposed to the virus. Then a rash appears on the face and spreads to other parts of the body. The rash is generally non-itchy but can be itchy in some cases.

The signs and symptoms of monkeypox may resemble those of other diseases such as chickenpox (varicella). If you think that you or your child might have been exposed to the virus, see your doctor immediately along with local public health officials for testing.

There are several monkeypox signs and symptoms, which are listed here.

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Exhaustion
  • Muscle aches and backache
  • Headache
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Exhaustion
  • Nodes
  • Chills
  • Body aches
  • Rash
  • Depression
  • Anxiety


The monkeypox virus is a rare viral disease that causes fever, rash, and aches. There is no specific treatment for monkeypox disease.

Monkeypox was first identified in 1958 among macaque monkeys in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Although it can be transmitted from animals to humans, it has not been reported to spread from human to human. However, there are some reports on human-to-human transmissibility through direct contact with patients or possibly contaminated objects such as bedding and clothing used by infected individuals.

In order for healthcare workers to prevent transmission of diseases like this one between humans, they need to practice proper infection control measures consistently and correctly when providing patient care without fail every day at work!

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