# Introduction of Linear Integrated Circuit

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A set of electronic components connected for a specific purpose is referred to as an electronic circuit.

Because it only requires a few discrete electrical components and connections, a basic electronic circuit is straightforward to construct. A complicated electronic circuit, on the other hand, is more difficult to design since it requires a greater number of discrete electronic components and their connections. Building such complicated circuits takes time and has a lower level of dependability. Integrated Circuits can help you solve these problems.

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## What is Linear Integrated Circuit (IC)

A linear integrated circuit may be found in a wide range of current electrical devices. As the device functions, the circuit may accept, process, and create a range of varying quantities of energy. This sort of circuit, which is characterized by identical input and output signal levels, is commonly used in devices that need amplifiers and oscillators.

Linear integrated circuits are employed in applications like audio-frequency and radio-frequency amplifiers where the signal output has to change. These circuits are used in devices like as audio amplifiers, DC amplifiers, oscillators, and multivibrators. An operational amplifier, or op amp, is the most common type of linear integrated circuit, and it consists of a traditional analog circuit made up of transistors, resistors, and diodes. An op amp has two inputs, one of which is inverting and the other of which is non-inverting.

When a signal is applied to the inverting input, the output produces a signal with the opposite phase. When a signal is applied to the circuit’s non-inverting input, the output has the same phase as the input. The inverting input and the output are connected by variable resistance, which regulates the signal’s amplification.

If the voltage and current of an analog IC are in a linear relationship, the IC is said to be linear. Linear ICs include the 8-pin Dual In-line Package (DIP)op-amp IC 741.

Non-Linear Analog Integrated Circuits An analog IC is considered to be non-linear if its voltage and current have a non-linear relationship. A Radio Frequency IC is another name for a Non-Linear IC.

## Examples of Linear Integrated Circuits

The operational amplifier is the most widely used and popular Linear IC. Differential operational amplifiers are an example of a circuit that may be utilized in all four of the categories stated above and is suitable for IC technology.

### Operational Amplifier (Op-amp)

A weak electric signal can be amplified using an operational amplifier, which is an integrated circuit. Two input pins and one output pin make up an operational amplifier. The voltage difference between the two input pins is amplified and output.

### Zero Drift Amplifier

An operational amplifier that reduces input offset voltage and input offset voltage drift (0) is known as a zero drift amplifier. For applications that need high-accuracy signal amplification, using a zero-drift operational amplifier is a very effective choice.

## Linear Integrated Circuits Applications

Amplification, oscillation, mixing, and modulation are among functions that Linear Integrated Circuits are used for. Linear integrated circuits (ICs) are used as amplifiers in the headphones. Linear ICs are also used in oscilloscopes that have analog-to-digital converters. Aside from that, linear ICs are employed in phase-locked-loops (PLLs), which provide a clock signal to most digital systems. They are used in a variety of ways in our daily life. The following xxnk are some of the most common applications for linear integrated circuits:

### Operational amplifiers

The Operational Amplifier is the most popular and widely used linear IC. It is a very efficient and resourceful gadget, despite its internal complexity and several terminals. It is a key building component in analog circuits and has a wide range of applications in the electronic industry.

Signal conditioning, analog calculation, analog instrumentation, specific transfer functions, and special systems design are just a few of the applications. Operational amplifiers circuits may be utilized to execute mathematical operations like subtraction, addition, integration, averaging, and differentiation by using the right feedback components.

### Power amplifiers

These are used to boost the power of an input signal’s magnitude. It takes a weak signal and reproduces a louder signal at the output to drive output devices such as loudspeakers, headphones, and other devices by using an external power source.

### Small-signal amplifiers

Voltage amplifiers are devices that transform low input voltage levels from sensors or audio signals into significantly higher output voltage levels. Voltage Amplifiers are another name for small signal amplifiers. Input Resistance, Output Resistance, and Gain are the three primary characteristics of voltage amplifiers.

The degree by which a tiny signal amplifier “Amplifies” the incoming signal is measured by its gain. Gain is defined as the ratio of output to input. It has no units and is denoted by the letter (A), with the most common forms of transistor gain being Voltage Gain (Av), Current Gain (Ai), and Power Gain (Ap) (Ap). The amplifier’s power gain can alternatively be stated in decibels, or simply dB. DC Base Biasing is necessary in a Class A type amplifier to amplify all of the input signal distortion-free.

### Microwave amplifiers

Traveling wave tube amplifiers are utilized for high power amplification at low microwave frequencies. They have the ability to magnify a wide range of frequencies. They’re employed in microwave applications in the military and aerospace that operate in harsh environments.

From the perspective of applications, this is a (nearly) math-free introduction to microwave amplifiers. There are several resources accessible to aspiring amplifier designers; this series of postings will aim to rapidly summarize the key elements for the RF system design engineer evaluating the best amplifier for her system design.

#### Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)

Owing to the relative insignificance of nonlinear effects in the amplifier due to the low input power, the low noise amplifier is the most easy microwave amplifier to comprehend. It is intended to amplify a very low level signal, such as that found at the end of a lossy transmission medium, with the least amount of additive noise possible. It’s important to remember that the noise, in addition to the additive noise, is amplified with the same strength as the signal. This implies that a low noise amplifier, like any other amplifier, can only increase the power level of both the signal and the noise, not the signal to noise ratio (SNR).

#### Power Amplifier (PA)

The low noise amplifier’s polar opposite is the power amplifier. A power amplifier enhances a signal that is already at a reasonably high level in preparation for transmission through a lossy medium like the air. While a PA’s gain is normally low (less than 10 dB), its power is substantial in absolute terms (i.e. an input of 500 milliwatts could be boosted to several watts). The PA’s saturated output power (Psat) significantly defines the wireless system’s physical range in terms of transmission/detection distance. The most significant metric of a power amplifier is clearly saturated output power, and efficiency is closely connected.

#### Linear Signal Amplifier

Linear signal amplifiers, sometimes known as ‘gain blocks,’ are general amplifiers that give signal gain inside a system. They are often not the determining element in the dynamic range of the system because they are not at the system’s input or output. Because power levels are greater in the LNA but lower in the PA, the choice of amplifier is a compromise between linearity, noise figure, and ‘convenience considerations’ like cost, size, and power consumption. They must not degrade the signal in any substantial way, despite the fact that the standards are not stringent.

#### Driver Amplifier

Marki focuses on the underdeveloped application field of the driver amplifier. These amplifiers are employed in synthesizers or as amplifiers for the local oscillator (LO) driving a mixer for single frequency (continuous wave or CW) operation. The driver amplifier is often built onto the transceiver chip as a CMOS circuit in consumer applications. These amplifiers are discrete in high-end electronic warfare, instrumentation, and test and measurement applications, however, to give maximum system performance.

### RF and IF amplifiers

A radio frequency power amplifier is an electrical amplifier that transforms a low-power radio frequency signal into a higher-power signal (RF). It’s employed in microwave cavity resonators and transmitting antennas. Radar, which uses transmitting-receiving antennas, is utilized in weather sensing.

Amplifier stages known as intermediate frequency amplifiers are used in radio and television receivers to boost signal levels (IF). Several intermediate frequencies are used by modern satellite television and FM radio (IF).

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