# How to Prepare for GATE Electronics & Communication Engineering?

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Electronics & Communication Engineering (EC) is one of the most promising and sought-after streams of engineering. Every year, lakhs of students take the GATE exam to get admissions in premier institutes like IISc, the IITs, and the NITs to pursue their masters in EC.

EC involves designing, researching, developing, and testing crucial electronic equipment used in various systems. It deals with basic electronics, analog transmission, digital and analog communication, analog integrated circuits, microprocessors, solid-state devices, microwave engineering, satellite communication, antennae, and wave progression.

With tough competition in the GATE EC exam, it is imperative to have an effective preparation strategy during GATE exam preparation for ECE to help you face the exam with ease.

If you are currently preparing for GATE EC, and looking for simple yet effective tips for its preparation, then you have landed on the right page. In this article, we will discuss the right strategy and steps you need to follow to crack GATE EC. But, before proceeding further, let’s have a look at the EC syllabus.

Contents

# Electronics & Communication Engineering Syllabus for GATE 2023

 Section Important Topics Networks, Signals and Systems Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Reciprocity theorem. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform. Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation. Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications. DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Electronic Devices Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors. Diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell. Analog Circuits Diode circuits:Clipping, clamping and rectifiers. BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, AC coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response. Current mirrors and differential amplifiers. Op-amp circuits:Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators. Digital Circuits Number representations:Binary, Integer and Floating-point- numbers. Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, Arithmetic circuits, Code converters, Multiplexers, Decoders. Sequential circuits:Latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay. Data converters:Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories:ROM, SRAM, DRAM. Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and control unit, instruction pipelining. Control Systems Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems. Communications Random processes:Autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems. Analog communications: Amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers. Information theory:Entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem. Digital communications:PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM),Bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER. Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC. Electromagnetics Maxwell’s equations:Differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions,wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves and properties:Reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth. Equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance Transmission lines: transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart. Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.

## Practical Tips for GATE EC Preparation

Below listed are a few practical tips that GATE aspirants will find helpful during their GATE EC preparation. Apart from these tips, aspirants should also consider using the best free apps for gate preparation.

# Tip 1 Make a concrete study plan and follow it rigorously. It is recommended to study for at least 6-8 hours daily.

# Tip 2 To prepare better for GATE EC, it is recommended to understand its syllabus thoroughly. It will serve as a guiding tool for your preparation. A careful analysis of the syllabus will further help you to filter the important topics that should be covered on priority. However, you should cover the entire syllabus to score well in the exam.

#Tip 3 General Aptitude and Engineering Mathematics have a significant marks weightage in the GATE exam. Hence, sufficient time should be devoted to their preparation.

#Tip 4 Do study from reference books. They will expedite your GATE exam preparation. Some of the essential books for GATE EC preparation are listed below:

 Topic Book Engineering Mathematics BS Grewal Control System Control Systems by Nagarath and Gopal Control Systems Engineering by Norma Nise Electronic Devices Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman & Halkias. Semiconductor Physics And Devices by Donald A. Neamen. Solid state electronic devices by Ben G. Streetman and Sanjay Banerjee Signal Systems Digital Signal Processing by S.K Mitra. Modern digital and analog Communications system by BP Lathi. Signals & Systems By Alan V. Oppenheim Analog Circuits Analog Electronics, Electronics devices and circuits – Donald A Neaman. Microelectronics Circuits by Sedra & Smith. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Robert L Boylestad & Nashelsky. Pulse and Digital Electronics by Millman and Taub. Digital System Digital Logic and Computer Design by M.Morris Mano, Digital Circuits and Design by Salivahanan or Fundamentals of digital systems by Anand kumar. Digital Electronic Principles and applications by Ronald J. Toccii, Pearson Publications. Electromagnetics Elements of Electromagnetics by Matthew N.O. Sadiku. Network lines and fields by J.D ryder (Transmission lines part). Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems by Jordon and Ballmain. Antenna Theory by Balanis. NPTEL Lectures by Prof. R. Shevgaonkar. Communication System Analog and Digital Communication System by Simon Haykin. Principle of Communication System by Taub& Schillings. Modern digital and analog Communications system by BP Lathi. Electronic Communication Systems by Kennedy and Davis (just the Noise chapter).

# Tip 5 Follow the most important ritual of solving Mock Test Papers (MTPs) and Previous year’s question (PYQs) papers to get familiar with the GATE exam pattern. Solving practice test papers improve the problem-solving skills of candidates and help in finding areas that need more focus. Your GATE exam preparation for ECE 2023 should include solving MTPs and PYQs.

We hope these tips will assist you and give you an edge in your Electronics & Communication Engineering preparation.